Multidisciplinary University Initiative (MURI) efforts involve teams of researchers investigating high priority topics and opportunities that intersect more than one traditional technical discipline. The DoD expects that MURI programs will promote application of defense research, principally for defense purposes but also for commercial purposes. The research topics described in the MURI announcement generally underpin dual use defense technologies that are critical to national defense and that also have good potential for commercial application. Interactions with research and development organizations that transition research findings to application, particularly industrial organizations, DoD laboratories, and other organizations that perform research and development for defense applications, are encouraged.